Electrifying colonial Africa: Portuguese developments


The electrification of Portuguese African colonies was a long-term process beginning in the late nineteenth century. Interestingly, it was boosted by a late effort of Portuguese colonialism after World War II, in the international context of the ‘second colonial occupation’, following the example of other European colonial powers. But it faced both international censure and the pressure of liberation movements such as the Marxist “Frelimo” breaking through in Angola, Guinea, and Mozambique in the early 1960s.