Modernization and Representations of Artillery in Europe

A battery of katyushas in action during the battle of Stalingrad, October 6, 1942. RIA Novosti archive, image #303890 / Zelma / CC-BY-SA 3.0.

While gunpowder was not a European invention, the development of artillery contributed from the late Middle Ages onwards to the emergence of European states, together with a military culture specific to the continent as a result of circulating technical knowledge. Artillery also contributed to the development of a specific way of conducting and experiencing war which culminated in the two global conflicts. In doing so, it led throughout Europe to a particular experience of war and the trauma of destruction and left a lasting impression on the Europeans through its devastating power.