Gender and circulations in Europe

Deportation of Russian Jews: convoys of women and children, July 17, 1941 Das Bundesarchiv Source: Wikimedia Commons
The emigration and disembarkation of European families in Australia, year 1885 (Drawing of migrants disembarking from a ship, 1885) John Oxley Library, State Library of Queensland, Australia. Source: Wikimedia Commons
Title in English: Friedland Transit Camp, Aussiedler: men and women waiting in a hallway, June 1988  Original title in German: Lager Friedland, Flur, Aussiedler / Flüchtlinge June 1988 Bundesarchiv, B 145 Bild-F079095-0030. Source: Wikimedia Commons
Francine Bajande, “November 1995. Women’s rights demonstration in Paris.” This major demonstration organized by a number of feminist associations reaffirmed the demands of women, including the right to an abortion and the right to work. It included many immigrant and exiled women. Pictured are Sahrawi and Algerian women. Source: Wikimedia Commons

The history of migration during the modern period has been studied without taking into account the respective roles played by men and women in individual and collective displacements. The study of forms of mobility in space, such as leisure travel, exploration, and colonial conquest, has rendered women invisible despite the fact that they were also active figures in long-distance displacements. Female victims of forced displacement have also remained in the dark for a long time. The history of circulations in Europe from the nineteenth century to the early twenty-first century shows how the movements of men and women in space have contributed to the evolution of the gendered division of social roles, as well as the shifting and blurring of gender identities.