Judeo-German Musicians Exiled to the United States (1933-1944)

Photographic portrait of Arnold Schönberg in 1927. Photo: Man Ray.

It is estimated that approximately 1,500 musicians fled Europe for the United States between 1933 and 1944, driven out by Nazism and anti-Jewish laws. This flow of concert players, orchestra conductors, composers and musicologists, most often of Germanic culture, led to an incomparable blossoming of American musical life, and helped establish musicology as a university discipline.