International Hague Conferences of 1899 and 1907

A plenary session during the Second Hague Conference, 1907, Hall of Knights (Ridderzaal).

Beyond their immediate effect, which remained very limited, the two Hague Conferences of 1899 and 1907 laid the groundwork for a new international system based on law. Resolutely turning their back on the Concert of Europe, they opened up to countries in the Americas and Asia, and especially sought to promote arbitration in settling disputes and ensuring peace. By making room for new diplomatic actors and practices, they ushered in the era of major international conferences and institutionalized multilateralism.