Fraternization in the Armed Forces during the two World Wars.

The Christmas truce, 25th December 1914 on the Belgian front (Ploegsteert): British and German soldiers photographed together

The fraternizations of the Western front during the First World War, which have received considerable media attention since the 2000s, have been transformed into memorial sites and symbols of the fraternity between the peoples of Western Europe. This use of fraternization in the discourse of a hypothetical “European memorial community” obscures the fact that fraternizations appeared in specific conditions and took different forms. They were initiated by soldiers and were for the most part fiercely opposed and condemned by senior officers.