Birth Control in Europe

Thermometer for determining the fertile and infertile days of the menstrual cycle, circa 1950.
August Haidjuk, “Always more and always less,” Ulk  24 (1912), Berlin.
Auteur-e-s: 

While the notion that any pregnancy must be stoically accepted dominated in Europe until the eighteenth century, birth control spread during the nineteenth century and gradually became a common practice despite opposition from the Church and political authorities. It was actually seen as a means of upward mobility and from the 1960s increasingly as an instrument of freedom. Policies, which had for a long time condemned this evolution, ultimately adapted and contributed to it through the liberalization of contraception. Governments nevertheless remain divided in Europe, particularly with regard to the question of abortion.

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