Europe of Political Crises

People atop the Berlin Wall near the Brandenburg Gate on November 9, 1989. The text on the sign, “Achtung! Sie verlassen jetzt West-Berlin”  (Warning! You are now leaving West Berlin), has been modified with an additional text “Wie denn?” (How?).

Nineteenth and twentieth century Europe was the continent of political crises par excellence Episodes of European protest (1848, 1918-1919, 1968, 1989) were characterized by their recurrence, continental scope, universalist dimension and profoundly transnational character. While these political crises were never strictly speaking European crises, they nevertheless contributed to the construction and diffusion of a public sphere, as well as of a political model and culture partly shared by European nations.