European Political Cooperation (1970-1993)

Auteur-e-s

Anglais

Between 1970 and 1993, European Political Cooperation (EPC) was based on a minimal model of integration, the result of a compromise between the intergovernmental and supranational viewpoints of European partners. EPC, which was limited to the sovereign domain of foreign policy and relied upon an intergovernmental process, took place among the member states of European communities, but did so outside the community framework. The evolution of EPC was marked by considerable pragmatism, with a series of factors contributing to its deepening: actors such as member states, the European Commission, third countries, the process of European construction, and the international stage. Finally, political cooperation responded to the European goal of having Europe’s voice heard in the world, and having a say in specific issues on the international scene such as the Conference on Security and Cooperation in Europe, the Near East, Cyprus, Africa, Latin America, etc.

27 October 1970, Luxembourg, the Foreign Ministers of the Six adopt the report on the harmonisation of foreign policies among the Six, prepared under the leadership of Viscount Étienne Davignon, Political Director in the Belgian Foreign Ministry.

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European Balance of Power


Anglais

The European balance of power is justified by the idea of defending the freedom of all in the face of any individual power’s ambition to dominate. It has been a constant point of reference in European political life since the 16th century, although its forms and its guarantors changed over time. Europe’s great powers are those most involved in the preservation of this balance, even if their own quests for power can also put it at risk.

Honoré Daumier “L’Équilibre européen” [The European Balance], plate n° 231 in the series “Actualités”, 1866, lithograph, published in Le Charivari, 1 December 1866.

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Commander en chef en Europe

Auteur-e-s

Français

Dans l’Europe moderne et contemporaine, commander en chef impliqua longtemps de conduire à la bataille des centaines de milliers ou des millions d’hommes. D’essence militaire, la fonction n’en a pas moins une forte dimension politique, qui se lit à la fois dans ses origines et dans ses prolongements. Si la fonction de commandant en chef n’a plus l’importance institutionnelle et l’aura qui furent les siennes avant 1945, elle n’en demeure pas moins un outil essentiel de compréhension de l’Europe contemporaine.

Johann Peter Krafft, L’archiduc Charles pendant la bataille d’Aspern, 1809, huile sur toile vers 1809, peinture conservée au Kunsthistorisches Museum de Vienne.

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The Paris Peace Conference (1919)

Auteur-e-s

Anglais

The first diplomatic gathering to bring together so many countries from all continents, the Paris Peace Conference was tasked with bringing the First World War to a diplomatic end. Faced with unprecedented difficulties, the Allies initially met without the enemies. After difficulties in establishing the organisation of the Conference, the Council of Four helped accelerate the future peace, even if numerous oppositions weakened the assembly on multiple occasions. Judging that the resulting peace did not respect the Pre-Armistice Agreement, which was the basis for peace, the vanquished experienced the treaties as a humiliation. The historiography today tends to distance itself from the Keynesian vision of the conference, and to consider the novel elements developed by the decision-makers of the peace of 1919-1920.

William Orpen, Signature du traité de Versailles dans la grande galerie, 1919

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European Commercial Ports

Auteur-e-s

Anglais

Europe’s major commercial ports have played a decisive historical role in the process of opening up large parts of the world. Today they are important sites of globalisation. These ports have evolved into highly developed, increasingly complex structures. Furthermore, the rise of Atlantic trade and the arrival of the industrial era brought profound changes in the hierarchy of European ports.

Giovanni Canaletto, The Thames and the City, oil on canvas, 1747

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Industrial Heritage: A New Cultural Issue

Auteur-e-s

Anglais

Industrial heritage is one of the mediums that best reflect the duality of Europe. On the one hand, it illustrates the exchanges that have developed on the continent for three centuries, while on the other, its recognition depends solely on a national context, as demonstrated by the opposing cases of France and the United Kingdom. Endowed with original values (work, technology, production, circulation of goods), it stands out less because of its aesthetics than by its flexibility, scope, and ability to shape landscapes.

Wool mill built in 1851 by the architects Henry Lockwood and Richard Mawson for Sir Titus Salt, one of the primary textile owners in Yorkshire (Northwest United Kingdom). Located on the Aire river, near the Leeds canal and the railroad, the model industrial town of Saltaire received UNESCO World Heritage Site status in 2001.

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Collaboration in Europe, 1939-1945

Auteur-e-s

Anglais

Collaboration in wartime not only concerns relations between the occupiers and occupied populations but also the assistance given by any government to a criminal regime. During the Second World War, the collaboration of governments and citizens was a crucial factor in the maintenance of German dominance in continental Europe. It was, moreover, precisely this assistance that allowed for the absolutely unprecedented dimensions of the Holocaust, a crime perpetrated on a European scale.

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Chaire d’excellence – Giuliana Laschi (axe 4)

Giuliana LASCHI, Professeure d’histoire contemporaine à l’Université de Bologne et Directrice du Centre Jean Monnet de Bologne, est invitée à l’Université de Nantes pour occuper la chaire d’excellence de l’axe 4 du LabEx Ecrire une Histoire Nouvelle de l’Europe (EHNE) « L’Europe, les Européens et le monde »  pour 4 mois du 1er septembre au 24 décembre 2017.

A l’initiative de Michel CATALA, Professeur d’histoire contemporaine au CRHIA et Directeur d’Alliance Europa.

Thèmes de recherches :

  • Histoire de l’intégration européenne
  • Histoire de la Politique Agricole Commune
  • Historie des relations extérieures de l’Union européenne

Pour consulter la page web de Giuliana LASCHI : cliquer ici

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