Emerging at the end of the nineteenth century, Progressive Education became a major international educational movement in the 1920s. Its advocates demanded profound educational reforms based on a scientific understanding of the child and on a reversal of educational logic. School, it was argued, should adapt to the child by respecting his or her needs and interests and allowing him or her to learn through experience, activity and cooperation. It was therefore a question of rethinking the curricula, teaching methods and the respective roles of teachers and pupils so that the latter could appropriate knowledge for themselves. Those who promoted Progressive Education campaigned for coeducation, so that boys and girls could benefit from the same teaching in a shared environment. For them, education should be natural, close to life, and should prepare pupils for social life through an experience of community life in school. This is how they would learn tolerance and respect for others, both children and adults.